Banksy is an anonymous England-based street artist, vandal, political activist, and film director. His satirical and subversive combine with executed in a distinctive technique. His works of political and social commentary have been featured on streets, walls, and bridges of cities throughout the world. Banksy's work grew out of the, which involved collaborations between artists and musicians. Banksy says that he was inspired by, a graffiti artist who later became a founding member of the English musical group.
Banksy displays his art on publicly visible surfaces such as walls and self-built physical prop pieces. Banksy does not sell photographs or reproductions of his street graffiti, but art auctioneers have been known to attempt to sell his street art on location and leave the problem of its removal in the hands of the winning bidder. Banksy created a documentary film,, billed as "the world's first street art ", which made its debut at the 2010. The film was released in the UK on 5 March 2010. In January 2011, he was nominated for the for the film. In 2014, he was awarded Person of the Year at the.
Banksy is believed to have been born in Yate, twelve miles from Bristol. He began as an artist at the age of 14. He was expelled from school and served time in prison for petty crime. His real name is believed to be Robin Gunningham. Gunningham, born on 28 July 1973, is a graffiti artist from Bristol and is out of touch with his family. Banksy lived in a house in Easton, Bristol, around which much of his work can still be seen, for ten years around the late 1990s.
In 1994 Banksy checked into a New York hotel using the name "Robin". Banksy moved to London around 2000, as did Robin Gunningham. In 2016, lawyers acting for Banksy, commenting on a scientific study identifying him as Gunningham, did not suggest that the paper's conclusions were in any way flawed. In June 2017 actor Goldie referred to Banksy by name as "Rob".
Early career (1990–2001)Stencil on the waterline of, an entertainment boat in central – (). The section of the hull with this picture has now been removed and is on display at the museum. The image of is based on a nineteenth-century etching illustrating the of.
Banksy started as a freehand graffiti artist in 1990–1994 as one of 's DryBreadZ Crew (DBZ), with two other artists known as Kato and Tes. He was inspired by local artists and his work was part of the larger with, and. During this time he met Bristol photographer, who began selling Banksy's work, later becoming his agent. By 2000 he had turned to the art of after realising how much less time it took to complete a work. He claims he changed to stencilling while hiding from the police under a rubbish lorry, when they noticed the stencilled serial number and by employing this technique, he soon became more widely noticed for his art around Bristol and London. He was the for the Easton Cowboys and Cowgirls football team in the 1990s, and toured with the club to Mexico in 2001. Banksy's first known large wall mural was painted in 1997 to cover advertising of a former solicitors' office on Stokes Croft in Bristol. It depicts a lobbing a at three.
Banksy's stencils feature striking and humorous images occasionally combined with slogans. The message is usually anti-war, anti-capitalist or anti-establishment. Subjects often include,, policemen, soldiers, children, and the elderly.
In July 2011 one of Banksy's early works,, which had been a prominent landmark on the exterior wall of a former social club in for over ten years, was unwittingly painted over after the premises became a Muslim cultural centre.
On 19 June 2002, Banksy's first Los Angeles exhibition debuted at 331⁄3 Gallery, a tiny venue owned by Frank Sosa. The exhibition, entitled Existencilism, was curated by 331⁄3 Gallery, Malathion LA's Chris Vargas, Funk Lazy Promotions' Grace Jehan, and B+.
In 2003, at an exhibition called, held in a London warehouse, Banksy painted on animals. At the time he gave one of his very few interviews, to the BBC's. Although the declared the conditions suitable, an animal rights activist chained herself to the railings in protest. An example of his paintings is 's, adapted to include urban detritus such as litter and a floating in its reflective waters; another is 's, redrawn to show that the characters are looking at a British football hooligan, dressed only in his underpants, who has just thrown an object through the glass window of the cafe. These oil paintings were shown at a twelve-day exhibition in Westbourne Grove, London in 2005.
Banksy, along with, Dmote and others created work at a warehouse exhibition in for Semi-Permanent in 2003. Approximately 1,500 people attended.
£10 notes to Barely Legal (2004–2006)
In August 2004, Banksy produced a quantity of spoof British £10 notes replacing the picture of the Queen's head with 's head and changing the text "Bank of England" to "Banksy of England". Someone threw a large wad of these into a crowd at that year, which some recipients then tried to spend in local shops. These notes were also given with invitations to a Santa's Ghetto exhibition by Pictures on Walls. The individual notes have since been selling on for about £200 each. A wad of the notes were also thrown over a fence and into the crowd near the signing tent at the. A limited run of 50 signed posters containing ten uncut notes were also produced and sold by Pictures on Walls for £100 each to commemorate the death of Princess Diana. One of these sold in October 2007 at auction house in London for £24,000.
In August 2005, Banksy, on a trip to the Palestinian territories, created nine images on the.
Banksy held an exhibition called, billed as a "three-day vandalised warehouse extravaganza" in Los Angeles, on the weekend of 16 September 2006. The exhibition featured a live "", painted in a pink and gold floral wallpaper pattern, which, according to leaflets handed out at the exhibition, was intended to draw attention to the issue of world poverty. Although the Animal Services Department had issued a permit for the elephant, after complaints from activists, the elephant appeared unpainted on the final day. Its owners rejected claims of mistreatment and said that the elephant had done "many, many movies. She's used to makeup." Banksy also made artwork displaying Queen Victoria as a lesbian and satirical pieces that incorporated art made by and.
The Banksy effect (2006–2007)
There are crimes that become innocent and even glorious through their splendour, number and excess.
After bought an original of as a lesbian and two prints for £25,000, on 19 October 2006, a set of paintings sold in London for £50,400, setting an auction record for Banksy's work. The six silk-screen prints, featuring the model painted in the style of 's pictures, sold for five times their estimated value. Their stencil of a green with real paint dripping from her eyes sold for £57,600 at the same auction. In December, journalist coined the phrase, "the Banksy effect", to illustrate how interest in other street artists was growing on the back of Banksy's success.image by Banksy, on the wall of a sexual health clinic in. Following popular support, the City Council has decided it will be allowed to remain. ()
On 21 February 2007, Sotheby's auction house in London auctioned three works, reaching the highest ever price for a Banksy work at auction: over £102,000 for. Two of his other graffiti works, and, sold for £37,200 and £31,200 respectively, which were well above their estimated prices. The following day's auction saw a further three Banksy works reach soaring prices: reached £96,000; sold for £72,000; sold for £33,600; all significantly above estimated values. To coincide with the second day of auctions, Banksy updated his website with a new image of an auction house scene showing people bidding on a picture that said, "I Can't Believe You Morons Actually Buy This Shit." In February 2007, the owners of a house with a Banksy mural on the side in decided to sell the house through Red Propeller art gallery after offers fell through because the prospective buyers wanted to remove the mural. It is listed as a mural that comes with a house attached. In 2008, Nathan Wellard and Maev Neal, a couple from Norfolk, UK, made headlines in Britain when they decided to sell their mobile home that contains a 30-foot mural, entitled, done by Banksy a decade prior to his rise to fame. According to Nathan Wellard, Banksy had asked the couple if he could use the side of their home as a "large canvas", to which they agreed. In return for the "canvas", the Bristol stencil artist gave them two free tickets to the. The mobile home purchased by the couple 11 years ago for 1,000 GBP, is now being sold for 500,000 GBP.
In April 2007, painted over Banksy's of a scene from 's film (1994), featuring and clutching bananas instead of guns. Although the image was very popular, Transport for London claimed that the graffiti created "a general atmosphere of neglect and social decay which in turn encourages crime" and their staff are "professional cleaners not professional art critics". Banksy painted the same site again and, initially, the actors were portrayed as holding real guns instead of bananas, but they were adorned with banana costumes. Some time later, Banksy made a tribute artwork over this second Pulp Fiction work. The tribute was for 19-year-old British graffiti artist Ozone who, along with fellow artist Wants, was hit by an underground train in, east London on 12 January 2007. Banksy depicted an angel wearing a bullet-proof vest holding a skull. They also wrote a note on their website saying:Ozone's Angel
The last time I hit this spot I painted a crap picture of two men in banana costumes waving hand guns. A few weeks later a writer called Ozone completely dogged it and then wrote "If it's better next time I'll leave it" in the bottom corner. When we lost Ozone we lost a fearless graffiti writer and as it turns out a pretty perceptive art critic. Ozone – rest in peace.
On 27 April 2007, a new record high for the sale of Banksy's work was set with the auction of the work fetching £288,000 (US6,000) around 20 times the estimate at of London. On 21 May 2007 Banksy gained the award for Art's. Banksy, as expected, did not turn up to collect his award and continued with his anonymous status. On 4 June 2007, it was reported that Banksy's had been stolen. In October 2007, most of his works offered for sale at auction house in London sold for more than twice their reserve price.Banksy's "Stonehenge" from portable toilets at the, June 2007
Banksy has published a "" on his website. The text of the manifesto is credited as the diary entry of British Mervin Willett Gonin,, which is exhibited in the. It describes how a shipment of lipstick to the immediately after its liberation at the end of World War II helped the internees regain their humanity. However, as of 18 January 2008, Banksy's Manifesto has been substituted with Graffiti Heroes No.03 that describes Peter Chappell's graffiti quest of the 1970s that worked to free of his imprisonment. By 12 August 2009 he was relying on ' "When I was a kid I used to pray every night for a new bicycle. Then I realised God doesn't work that way, so I stole one and prayed for forgiveness." A small number of Banksy's works can be seen in the movie, including a stenciled image of two policemen kissing and another stencil of a child looking down a shop.
Banksy, who "is not represented by any of the commercial galleries that sell his work second hand (including Lazarides Ltd, Andipa Gallery, Bank Robber, Dreweatts etc.)", claims that the exhibition at Vanina Holasek Gallery in New York City (his first major exhibition in that city) is unauthorised. The exhibition featured 62 of their paintings and prints.
2008Banksy "Swinger" in New Orleans
In March, a stencilled graffiti work appeared on tower in the middle of the, and it was widely attributed to Banksy. It was of a child painting the tag "Take this—Society!" in bright orange. spokesman, Councillor Greg Smith branded the art as vandalism, and ordered its immediate removal, which was carried out by H&F council workmen within three days.Work on building in the of New Orleans, August 2008
In late August 2008, marking the third anniversary of and the associated, Banksy produced a series of works in New Orleans, Louisiana, mostly on buildings derelict since the disaster. A stencil painting attributed to Banksy appeared at a vacant petrol station in the neighbourhood of on 29 August as approached the New Orleans area. The painting, depicting a hooded member of the hanging from a noose, was quickly covered with black spray paint and later removed altogether. His first official exhibition in New York City, "", opened 5 October 2008. The pets in the store window include a mother hen watching over her baby as they peck at a barbecue sauce packet, and a rabbit putting makeup on in a mirror.
The stated in October 2008 that the work, painted in April 2008 would be painted over as it was graffiti. The council said it would remove any graffiti, regardless of the reputation of its creator, and specifically stated that Banksy "has no more right to paint graffiti than a child". Robert Davis, the chairman of the council planning committee told The Times newspaper: "If we condone this then we might as well say that any kid with a spray can is producing art." The work was painted over in April 2009. In December 2008, The Little Diver, a Banksy image of a diver in a duffle coat in Melbourne Australia was destroyed. The image had been protected by a sheet of clear ; however, silver paint was poured behind the protective sheet and later tagged with the words "Banksy woz ere". The image was almost completely obliterated.
The Cans Festival (2008)
In London, over the weekend 3–5 May 2008, Banksy hosted an exhibition called. It was situated on, a road tunnel formerly used by Eurostar underneath. Graffiti artists with stencils were invited to join in and paint their own artwork, as long as it did not cover anyone else's. Banksy invited artists from around the world to exhibit their works.
2009The location of the damaged 1985 graffiti by in Camden, London allegedly painted over by Banksy and subsequently painted over by Robbo in retaliation.
In May 2009, Banksy parted company with agent and announced that Pest Control, the handling service who act on his behalf, would be the only point of sale for new works. On 13 June 2009, the Banksy vs Bristol Museum show opened at, featuring more than 100 works of art, including animatronics and installations; it is his largest exhibition yet, featuring 78 new works. Reaction to the show was positive, with over 8,500 visitors to the show on the first weekend. Over the course of the twelve weeks, the exhibition was visited over 300,000 times. In September 2009, a Banksy work parodying the Royal Family was partially destroyed by Hackney Council after they served an enforcement notice for graffiti removal to the former address of the property owner. The mural had been commissioned for the 2003 single "" and the property owner, who had allowed it to be painted, was reported to have been in tears when she saw it was being painted over.
In December 2009, Banksy marked the end of the by painting four murals on global warming. One included the phrase, "I don't believe in global warming;" the words were submerged in water. A feud and graffiti war between Banksy and broke out when Banksy allegedly painted over one of Robbo's tags. The feud has led to many of Banksy's works being altered by graffiti writers.
Exit Through the Gift Shop (2010)
The world premiere of the film occurred at the in, on 24 January. He created 10 street artworks around Park City and to tie in with the screening. In February, public house in, England, was sold for £114,000 at auction. The side of the building has an image of a giant rat by Banksy.
In March 2010, the work "" was displayed at the in conjunction with an arts company that put on art shows on the. The work was censored by the (TfL), forbidding display of the work with its halo, because of the prevalence of graffiti in the underground. It was displayed without the halo over the boy's head, but after a few days the halo was repainted by a graffitist, so the TfL disposed of the poster. This decline went through the press and several articles were published remarking on the progress of the poster.
Banksy paints over the line between aesthetics and language, then stealthily repaints it in the unlikeliest of places. His works, whether he stencils them on the streets, sells them in exhibitions or hangs them in museums on the sly, are filled with wit and metaphors that transcend language barriers.
writing for Time on Banksy's entry in the list, April 2010
In April, to coincide with the premiere of Exit Through the Gift Shop in San Francisco, five of his works appeared in various parts of the city. Banksy reportedly paid a building owner for the use of their wall for one of his stencils. In May 2010, seven new Banksy works of art appeared in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, though most have been subsequently painted over or removed.
In May, to coincide with the premiere of Exit Through the Gift Shop in Royal Oak, Banksy visited the Detroit area and left his mark in several places in Detroit and Warren. Shortly after, his work depicting a little boy holding a can of red paint next to the words "I remember when all this was trees" was excavated by the 555 Nonprofit Gallery and Studios. They claim that they do not intend to sell the work but plan to preserve it and display it at their Detroit gallery. There was also an attempted removal of one of the Warren works known as "Diamond Girl".
In late January 2011, Exit Through the Gift Shop was nominated for a 2010 Oscar for Best Documentary Feature. Banksy released a statement about the nomination, stating, "This is a big surprise... I don't agree with the concept of award ceremonies, but I'm prepared to make an exception for the ones I'm nominated for. The last time there was a naked man covered in gold paint in my house, it was me." Leading up to the Oscars, Banksy blanketed Los Angeles with street art. Many people speculated if Banksy would show up at the Oscars in disguise and make a surprise appearance if he won the Oscar. Exit Through the Gift Shop did not win the award, which went to. In early March 2011, Banksy responded to the Oscars with an artwork in, UK, of a little girl holding the Oscar and pouting. Many people think that it is in reference to 15-month-old Lara, who dropped and damaged her father's (The King's Speech co-producer Simon Egan) Oscar statue.Exit Through the Gift Shop was broadcast on British public television station on 13 August 2011.
Banksy was also credited with the opening for the 2010 episode "", depicting people working in deplorable conditions and using endangered or mythical animals to make both the episodes cel-by-cel and the merchandise connected with the program. His name appears several times throughout the episode's opening sequence, spray-painted on assorted walls and signs. Fox sanitised parts of the opening "for taste" and to make it less grim. In January 2011, Banksy published the original storyboard on its website. According to Banksy, the storyboard "led to delays, disputes over broadcast standards and a threatened walk out by the animation department." Executive director jokingly said, "This is what you get when you outsource."
In May 2011 Banksy released a lithographic print which showed a smoking contained in a 'Tesco Value' bottle. This followed a long running campaign by locals against the opening of a Tesco Express supermarket in Banksy's home city of Bristol. Violent clashes had taken place between police and demonstrators in the Stokes Croft area. Banksy produced the poster ostensibly to raise money for local groups in the Stokes Croft area and to raise money for the legal defence of those arrested during the riots. The posters were sold exclusively at the Bristol Anarchists Bookfair in Stokes Croft for £5 each.
In December, he unveiled at the, Liverpool. The bust, which replaces a priest's face with a "pixelated" effect, was a statement on the scandal in the Catholic Church.
In May his, painted in in the late 1990s, was accidentally destroyed by plumbers installing new pipes.
In July, prior to the Banksy posted photographs of paintings with an Olympic theme on his website but did not disclose their location.
On 18 February, BBC News reported that a recent Banksy mural, known as the portraying a young child sewing bunting (created around the time of the ) had been removed from the side of a store in Wood Green, north London, and soon appeared for sale in Fine Art Auctions Miami's catalogue (a US auction site based in Florida). News of this has reportedly caused "lots of anger" in the local community and is considered by some to be a theft. Fine Art Auctions Miami has rejected claims of theft, saying it had signed a contract with a "well-known collector" and that "everything was above board"; despite this, the local Councillor for Wood Green is campaigning for the work's return.
On the scheduled day of the auction, Fine Art Auctions Miami announced that it had withdrawn the work of art from the sale.
On 11 May, BBC News reports that the same Banksy mural is up for auction again in Covent Garden by the Sincura Group. The auction is scheduled to take place in June. It is expected to fetch up to £450,000. On 24 September, after over a year since his previous piece, a new mural went up on their website along with the subtitle Better Out Than In.
Better Out Than In (2013)
On 1 October, Banksy began a one-month "show on the streets of ", for which he opened a separate website and granted an interview to via his publicist.
A pop-up boutique of about 25 spray-art canvases appeared on near on 12 October. Tourists were able to buy Banksy art for just each. In a note posted to his website, the artist wrote: "Please note this was a one-off. The stall will not be there again." The BBC estimated that the street-stall art pieces could be worth as much as,000. The booth was manned by an unknown elderly man who went about four hours before making a sale, yawning and eating lunch as people strolled by without a second glance at the work. Banksy chronicled the surprise sale in a video posted to their website noting, "Yesterday I set up a stall in the park selling 100% authentic original signed Banksy canvases. For each." Two of the canvasses sold at a July 2014 auction for 4,000.
It was reported that then- called Banksy a vandal whose work is not the definition of art, and that the 's vandal squad was on the hunt for Banksy over his various graffiti art and. One creation was a fiberglass sculpture of and a real person, barefoot and in ragged clothes, shining the oversized shoes of Ronald McDonald. The sculpture was unveiled in but moved outside a different around the city every day. Other works included a YouTube video showing what appears to be footage of jihadist militants shooting down an animated ; travelling installations that toured the city including a slaughterhouse delivery truck full of stuffed animals and a waterfall; and a modified painting donated to a charity shop which was later sold in an online auction for 5,000. Banksy also posted a mock-up of a attacking the design of the after the Times rejected his submission. The residency in New York concluded on 31 October 2013; many of the pieces, though, were either vandalised, removed or stolen.
'Banksy in Gaza' clip
In February 2015 Banksy published a 2-minute video titled "Make this the year YOU discover a new destination" about his trip to. During the visit he painted a few artworks including a kitten on the remains of a house destroyed by an Israeli air strike. ("I wanted to highlight the destruction in Gaza by posting photos on my website—but on the internet people only look at pictures of kittens") and a swing hanging off a watchtower. In a statement to his publicist said,
I don't want to take sides. But when you see entire suburban neighbourhoods reduced to rubble with no hope of a future—what you're really looking at is a vast outdoor recruitment centre for terrorists. And we should probably address this for all our sakes.
Main article:Dismaland (2015), a "bemusement park" in Weston-super-Mare
Banksy opened, a large scale group show lampooning Disneyland on 21 August 2015 and permanently closed on 27 September 2015. The "theme park" was located in, United Kingdom. According to the Dismaland website, artists and were represented in the show.
The Son of a Migrant from Syria
In December 2015, Banksy created several murals in the vicinity of, France, including the so-called "" where migrants live as they attempt to enter the United Kingdom. One of the pieces, , depicts as a migrant.
Walled Off Hotel
In 2017, marking the 100th anniversary of the British control of Palestine, Banksy financed the creation of the Walled Off Hotel in. This hotel is open to the public, and contains rooms designed by Banksy, Sami Musa and Dominique Petrin, and each of the bedrooms face the wall. It also houses a contemporary art gallery.
Return to New York
2018 saw Banksy return to New York five years after his 'Better Out Than In' residency. A trademark rat running around the circumference of a clock-face, dubbed "Rat race", was torn down by developers within a week of it appearing on a former bank building at 101 West 14th Street, but other works, including a mural of imprisoned Turkish artists Zehra Dogan on the famed Bowery Wall and a series of others across Brooklyn, remain on display.
He does all this and he stays anonymous. I think that's great. These days everyone is trying to be famous. But he has anonymity.
Banksy's name and identity remain unknown – it has been stated that the reason for this secrecy is that graffiti is a crime. Guardian journalist has described Banksy in 2003 as "white, 28, scruffy casual – jeans, T-shirt, a silver tooth, silver chain and silver earring. He looks like a cross between and of the Streets". A commonly cited 2008 investigation of several former schoolmates and associates stated that the artist is believed to be Robin Gunningham, a former pupil at the. This suggestion was corroborated in 2016 by a study of the locations in which Banksy's art has been found, which found that the incidence of Banksy's works correlated with the known movements of Gunningham.
There has also been speculation that Banksy is a team of seven artists. In October 2014, an internet hoax circulated that Banksy had been arrested and his identity revealed.
In August 2016, Scottish journalist Craig Williams published an investigative piece in which he connected the timing of Banksy's murals with the touring schedule of the band. Williams put forward the suggestion that Banksy's work could be the work of a collective, and that Banksy himself may be Massive Attack's frontman,. Del Naja had been a graffiti artist during the 1980s prior to forming the band and had previously been identified as a personal friend of Banksy.
In June 2017, English musician referred to Banksy as Rob (or Robert), during an interview with. It has been argued that Goldie could have been referring to either, Robin Gunningham, or neither of them.
In April 2018, an anonymous forensic expert believed that Banksy's identity is and cartoonist, who is associated with every company known to be connected to Banksy.
As of 2014, Banksy was regarded as a British cultural icon, with young adults from abroad naming the artist among a group of people that they most associated with, which included, Queen,,,,, and.
Other notable artworks
In addition to his artwork, Banksy has claimed responsibility for a number of high-profile artworks, including the following:
- At, he climbed into the penguin enclosure and painted "We're bored of fish" in 7-foot-high (2.1 m) letters. graffiti art hope 2018
- At London Zoo, he left the message "I want out. This place is too cold. Keeper smells. Boring, boring, boring." in the elephant enclosure.
- In March 2005, he placed subverted artworks in the,, and in as well as the in.
- In May 2005 Banksy's version of a primitive depicting a human figure hunting wildlife while pushing a shopping trolley was hung in gallery 49 of the, London.
- In August 2005, Banksy painted nine images on the, including an image of a ladder going up and over the wall and an image of children digging a hole through the wall.
- In October 2005, Banksy designed six station IDs for.
- In April 2006, Banksy created a sculpture based on a crumpled red phone box with a pickaxe in its side, apparently bleeding, and placed it in a side street in, London. It was later removed by."
- In June 2006, Banksy created an image of a naked man hanging out of a bedroom window on a wall visible from Park Street in central. The image sparked "a heated debate", with the leaving it up to the public to decide whether it should stay or go. After an internet discussion in which 97% of the 500 people surveyed supported the stencil, the city council decided it would be left on the building. The mural was later defaced with blue paint.
- In August/September 2006, Banksy placed up to 500 copies of 's debut CD,, in 48 different UK record stores with his own cover art and remixes by. Music tracks were given titles such as "Why Am I Famous?", "What Have I Done?" and "What Am I For?". Several copies of the CD were purchased by the public before stores were able to remove them, some going on to be sold for as much as £750 on online auction websites such as. The cover art depicted Hilton digitally altered to appear topless. Other pictures feature her with her chihuahua Tinkerbell's head replacing her own, and one of her stepping out of a luxury car, edited to include a group of homeless people, which included the caption "90% of success is just showing up."
- In September 2006, Banksy dressed an inflatable doll in the manner of a prisoner (, black hood, and handcuffs) and then placed the figure within the ride at the theme park in.
- He makes stickers (the Neighbourhood Watch subvert) and was responsible for the cover art of 2003 album.
- In September 2007, Banksy covered a wall in Portobello Road with a French artist painting graffiti of Banksy's name.
- In July 2012, in the run up to the Olympic games he created several pieces based upon this event. One included an image of an athlete throwing a missile instead of Javelin, evidently taking a poke at the Surface to Air missile sites positioned in the Stratford area to defend the games.
- In April 2014, he created a piece in, near the (GCHQ) headquarters, which depicts three men wearing sunglasses and using listening devices to "snoop" on a telephone box, evidently criticising the recent of 2013. This was only confirmed by Banksy as his work later in June 2014. This piece 'disappeared' on 20 August 2016 during renovations to the building it was on, and may have been destroyed.
- In June 2016, a 14 ft painting of a child with a stick chasing a burning tyre was found in the Bridge Farm Primary School in Bristol with a letter from Banksy thanking the school for naming one of its houses after him. BBC News reported that a spokesman for Banksy confirmed that the artwork was genuine. In the letter, Banksy wrote that if the members of the school did not like the painting, they should add their own elements.
- In May 2017, Banksy claimed the authorship of a giant Brexit, painted on a house in Dover (Kent)
Near – 2005
Show me the Monet. A reworking of 's Water Lilies, showing the juxtaposition between nature and mankind
2014 work in
Dover, Brexit, by Banksy (2017)
Several artworks by Banksy were vandalised, painted over or destroyed.
In 2008, in, paint was poured over a stencil of an old-fashioned diver wearing a trench coat. In April 2010, the reported that they had inadvertently ordered private contractors to paint over a adorning the wall of an old council building behind the Forum Theatre.
Many works that make up the Better Out Than In series in New York City have been, some just hours after the piece was unveiled. At least one defacement was identified as done by a competing artist, OMAR NYC, who spray-painted over Banksy's red mylar balloon piece in. OMAR NYC also defaced some of Banksy's work in May 2010.
TechniqueATM attacking a girl, Rosebery Avenue, London, January 2008
are traditionally hand drawn or printed onto sheets of acetate or card, before being cut out by hand. Because of the secretive nature of Banksy's work and identity, it is uncertain what techniques he uses to generate the images in the stencils, though it is assumed he uses computers for some images due to the photographic quality of much of his work.
He mentions in his book Wall and Piece that as he was starting to do graffiti, he was always too slow and was either caught or could never finish the art in one sitting. So he devised a series of intricate stencils to minimise time and overlapping of the colour.
There is dispute in the street art world over the legitimacy of stencils, with many artists criticising their use as "cheating".
Political and social themesShop Until You Drop in Mayfair, London. Banksy has said "We can't do anything to change the world until capitalism crumbles. In the meantime we should all go shopping to console ourselves."
Banksy once characterised graffiti as a form of underclass "revenge", or that allows an individual to snatch away power, territory and glory from a bigger and better equipped enemy. Banksy sees a social class component to this, remarking "If you don't own a train company then you go and paint on one instead." Banksy's work has also shown a desire to mock centralised power, hoping that their work will show the public that although power does exist and works against you, that power is not terribly efficient and it can and should be deceived.
Banksy's works have dealt with various political and social themes, including,,,,,,, and. Additionally, the components of the that his works commonly critique are, poverty,,,,, and. Although Banksy's works usually rely on visual imagery and iconography to put forth their message, Banksy has made several politically related comments in their various books. In summarising his list of "people who should be shot", he listed "Fascist thugs, religious fundamentalists, (and) people who write lists telling you who should be shot." While facetiously describing his political nature, Banksy declared that "Sometimes I feel so sick at the state of the world, I can't even finish my second apple pie."
During the, Banksy offered voters a free print if they cast a ballot against the Conservative candidates standing in the Bristol North West, Bristol West, North Somerset, Thornbury, Kingswood and Filton constituencies. According to a note posted on Banksy's website, an emailed photo of a completed ballot paper showing it marked for a candidate other than the Conservative candidate would result in the voter being mailed a limited edition piece of Banksy art. On 5 June 2017 the announced it had opened an investigation into Banksy for the suspected of bribery, and the following day Banksy withdrew the offer stating "I have been warned by the Electoral Commission that the free print offer will invalidate the election result. So I regret to announce that this ill-conceived and legally dubious promotion has now been cancelled."
Peter Gibson, a spokesman for, asserts that Banksy's work is simple vandalism, and Diane Shakespeare, an official for the same organisation, was quoted as saying: "We are concerned that Banksy's street art glorifies what is essentially vandalism." In his column for, satirist wrote of Banksy "...his work looks dazzlingly clever to idiots."
Banksy has also been long criticised for copying the work of, who created the life-sized stencil technique in early 1980s Paris and used it to express a similar combination of political commentary and humorous imagery. Blek has praised Banksy for his contribution to urban art, but said in an interview for the documentary Graffiti Wars that some of Banksy's more derivative work makes him "angry", saying that "It's difficult to find a technique and style in art so when you have a style and you see someone else is taking it and reproducing it, you don't like that."
Some have criticised the "obviousness" of Banksy's work and accused it of being "anarchy-lite" geared towards a "" audience. Much of this criticism came forward during his series of works in New York in 2013. Many New York street artists, such as, criticised Banksy, and much of his work was defaced.
Banksy has several books that contain photographs of his work in various countries as well as some of his canvas work and exhibitions, accompanied by his own writings:
- Banksy, Banging Your Head Against a Brick Wall (2001)
- Banksy, Existencilism (2002)
- Banksy, Cut It Out (2004)
- Banksy, Wall and Piece (2005)
- Banksy, Pictures of Walls (2005)
- Banksy, You Are an Acceptable Level of Threat (2012)
published Wall and Piece in 2005. It contains a combination of images from their three previous books, as well as some new material. The book was a best seller in the arts category for several years after its release.
- Holzwarth, Hans W. (2009). 100 Contemporary Artists A-Z (Taschen's 25th anniversary special ed.). Köln: Taschen. p. 40. .
- , 19 July 2007
- ^ Baker, Lindsay (28 March 2008).. The Daily Telegraph. London: Telegraph Media Group. from the original on 13 April 2009. Retrieved 24 June 2009.
- . Archived from on 3 January 2012. Retrieved 3 August 2013. Statement does not appear in current URL, only archived URL.
- . meeja.com.au. 30 September 2008. Archived from on 16 October 2008. Retrieved 30 September 2008.
- . BBC News. 21 January 2010. Retrieved 12 April 2010.
- Kay, Jeremy (26 January 2010).. creendaily.com. from the original on 3 February 2010. Retrieved 12 April 2010.
- . BBC Bristol. 25 January 2011. Archived from on 21 April 2017. Retrieved 8 May 2017.
- . Webbyawards.com. from the original on 31 May 2014. Retrieved 30 May 2014.
- Lonely Planet (May 2013). (PDF). p. 282.
- ^ Hattenstone, Simon (17 July 2003).. The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 29 January 2018.
- The Daily Telegraph, Property section, London, 7 July 2018, page 5.
- ABC News (7 March 2016).. Retrieved 24 July 2018.
- Francis, Nick (4 October 2012).. The Sun. London.
- Davies, Rob (13 July 2008).. Telegraph. Retrieved 21 August 2018.
- The Economist (3 March 2016).. Retrieved 24 July 2018.
- Webb, Jonathan (3 March 2016).. Retrieved 24 April 2018.
- BBC News (23 June 2017).. Retrieved 24 July 2018.
- Daunton, Martin (4 November 2004).. BBC News. from the original on 5 January 2009. Retrieved 26 January 2009.
- Wright, Steve; Richard Jones; Trevor Wyatt (28 November 2007). Banksy's Bristol: Home Sweet Home. Bath: Tangent Books. p. 32. .
- . April 1999. from the original on 3 April 2007.
- . BBC News. 9 February 2009. from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 31 August 2011. Street art [...] erupted in the UK in the early 1980s [...] active on the Bristol scene at that time included Banksy, Nick Walker, Inkie and Robert del Naja, or '3D', of Massive Attack.
- Reid, Julia (6 February 2008)... London. from the original on 17 November 2011. Retrieved 31 August 2011. Along with Banksy, Bristol's graffiti heritage includes 3D, who went on to form Massive Attack, Inkie, and one of the original stencil artists Nick Walker.
- Child, Andrew (28 January 2011)... London. from the original on 28 March 2014. Retrieved 4 November 2013. He had discovered Banksy on a chance photo shoot in Bristol in 2001 while working as picture editor of Sleaze Nation magazine, and brought him to public attention along with a roster of other urban artists... Lazarides and Banksy parted company in 2009, a mysterious split about which both parties have remained tight-lipped.
- ^ Banksy (2005)... from the original on 28 September 2006. Retrieved 19 September 2006.
- Onyanga-Omara, Jane (14 September 2012)... from the original on 16 September 2012. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
- . Bristol-street-art.co.uk. 27 November 2008. from the original on 16 April 2014. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
- . BBC. 15 July 2011. from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
- Bates, Stephen (15 July 2011).. The Guardian. London. from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 15 July 2011.
- . Art of the State. from the original on 4 February 2009. Retrieved 26 January 2009.
- . BBC Bristol. BBC. from the original on 13 April 2015. Retrieved 11 March 2015.
- . BBC News. 18 July 2003. from the original on 5 October 2006. Retrieved 19 September 2006.
- . 13 October 2005. Archived from on 11 November 2006. Retrieved 19 September 2006.
- . BBC News. BBC. 20 May 2015. from the original on 25 September 2015.
- ^ Jones, Sam (5 August 2005).. The Guardian. London. from the original on 4 October 2006. Retrieved 19 September 2006.
- Oliver, Mark (18 September 2006).. The Guardian. UK. from the original on 19 October 2013. Retrieved 20 April 2011.
- Bowes, Peter (14 September 2006).. BBC News. from the original on 12 March 2007. Retrieved 19 September 2006.
- ^ 18 November 2013 at the. by, 30 August 2012
- Beard, Matthew (6 April 2006).. The Independent. UK. from the original on 7 September 2006. Retrieved 20 October 2006.
- . BBC News. 20 October 2006. from the original on 9 February 2007. Retrieved 20 October 2006.
- . CNN. 4 December 2006. from the original on 10 July 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2010. "Banksy Effect" mentioned near end.
- . BBC News. 15 September 2006. from the original on 6 March 2009. Retrieved 12 April 2010.
- . Reuters. 7 February 2007. from the original on 9 January 2009. Retrieved 8 November 2008.
- Roberts, Geneviève (19 January 2007).. The Independent. UK. from the original on 21 February 2009. Retrieved 26 January 2009.
- ^ Collins, Lauren (14 May 2007).. The New Yorker. from the original on 30 December 2008. Retrieved 26 January 2009.
- . BBC News. 12 February 2007. from the original on 13 February 2007. Retrieved 12 February 2007.
- . BBC News. 3 June 2008. from the original on 28 July 2013.
- Newling, Dan (19 April 2007)... London:. from the original on 5 February 2015. Retrieved 5 February 2015.
- . BBC News. 20 April 2007. from the original on 25 May 2007. Retrieved 20 April 2007.
- Addley, Esther (26 January 2007).. The Guardian. London. from the original on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 26 January 2009.
- Bull, Martin (2011). Banksy Locations & Tours: A collection of Graffiti Locations and Photographs in London, England. PM Press. .
- . Uk.reuters.com. 25 April 2007. from the original on 30 December 2008. Retrieved 26 January 2009.
- .. Archived from on 8 June 2007. Retrieved 4 June 2007.
- Hattenstone, Simon (2 April 2004).. The Guardian. UK. from the original on 25 June 2008. Retrieved 15 June 2008.
- 26 October 2007 at the. Sky News, 24 October 2007
- ^. Archived from on 19 January 2005.
- . Contact Music. from the original on 22 December 2015. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
- . Archived from on 26 October 2010. Retrieved 28 October 2010.
- . Artinfo.. 7 December 2007. from the original on 16 September 2008. Retrieved 16 April 2008.
- . The London Paper. 11 March 2008. Archived from on 14 March 2008.
- . Sky News. 28 August 2008. Archived from on 6 December 2008.
- 21 October 2013 at the., Marc Schiller,
- Ryzik, Melena (9 October 2008).. The New York Times. from the original on 9 June 2016.
- . The Sydney Morning Herald. 24 October 2008. from the original on 31 March 2013.
- Houghton, Janae (14 December 2008).. The Age. Australia. from the original on 24 March 2011.
- . BBC News. 2 May 2008. from the original on 17 June 2009. Retrieved 5 January 2010.
- . Cool Hunting. 6 May 2008. from the original on 11 May 2008. Retrieved 17 May 2008.
- . Pest Control Office. from the original on 31 January 2009. Retrieved 23 May 2009.
- Cafe, Rebecca (12 June 2009).. BBC Bristol. BBC. from the original on 15 June 2009. Retrieved 14 June 2009.
- Sawyer, Miranda (13 June 2009).. The Guardian. London: Guardian News and Media. from the original on 15 June 2009. Retrieved 13 June 2009.
- . Bristol Evening Post. Bristol News and Media. 15 June 2009. from the original on 18 June 2009. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
- Cafe, Rebecca (31 August 2009).. BBC Bristol. BBC. from the original on 15 June 2009. Retrieved 31 August 2009.
- . BBC News. 5 September 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2009.
- 3 March 2012 at the.. BBC News. 21 December 2009.
- Fuertes-Knight, Jo.. Sabotage Times. from the original on 19 August 2011.
- Means, Sean P. (21 January 2010).. The Salt Lake Tribune. from the original on 24 January 2010. Retrieved 21 January 2010.
- Sharpe, Laura (18 February 2010).. The Liverpool Daily Post. from the original on 9 September 2010.
- ^. BBC News. 17 March 2010. Retrieved 25 December 2011.
- . London Evening Standard. Thisislondon.co.uk. 17 March 2010. from the original on 29 May 2010. Retrieved 25 December 2011.
- Fairy, Shephard (29 April 2010). (20 May 2015). Time. from the original on 18 May 2015.
- . The San Francisco Chronicle. 23 April 2010. from the original on 28 April 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- 27 April 2010 at the.. Sfluxe.com (24 April 2010). Retrieved 25 November 2012.
- . Torontoist. from the original on 12 May 2010. Retrieved 9 May 2010.
- Travis R Wright (10 May 2010).. Metro Times blogs. Archived from on 19 January 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
- Mark Stryker.. from the original on 18 May 2010.
- Becks Davis (12 May 2010).. Detroit Moxie. from the original on 16 May 2010.
- . Oscar.go.com. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
- 1 March 2011 at the.. Nme.com (27 January 2011). Retrieved 25 November 2012.
- 11 March 2011 at the.. Swns.com (9 March 2011). Retrieved 25 November 2012.
- ^. BBC News. 11 October 2010. from the original on 12 October 2010. Retrieved 12 October 2010.
- from banksy.co.uk, archived at web.archive.org
- . BBC News. 15 December 2011. from the original on 16 December 2011.
- 17 May 2012 at the.. Abc.net.au (16 May 2012). Retrieved 25 November 2012.
- 10 November 2013 at the.. bbc.co.uk (24 July 2012).
- . English.ahram.org.eg. 27 July 2012. from the original on 15 March 2014. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
- 18 February 2013 at the. bbc.co.uk/news (18 February 2013). Retrieved 18 February 2013.
- 27 February 2013 at the. bbc.co.uk/news (24 February 2013). Retrieved 3 January 2014.
- 13 May 2013 at the. bbc.co.uk/news (11 May 2013). Retrieved 3 January 2014.
- . Banksy.co.uk. 13 October 2013. from the original on 18 October 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
- Hamilton, Keegan (9 October 2013).. The Village Voice. from the original on 9 October 2013.
- . BBC. 14 October 2013. from the original on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
- . ABC News. from the original on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
- . CNN. 14 October 2013. from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
- . from the original on 20 February 2015. Retrieved 2014-12-12.
- Jeane MacIntosh, Larry Celona and Bruce Golding (16 October 2013).. New York Post. from the original on 16 October 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
- . CBS Local. 16 October 2013. from the original on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
- Semuels, Alana (17 October 2013).. Los Angeles Times. from the original on 25 October 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
- Grant, Drew (16 October 2013).. The New York Observer. from the original on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
- Liam O'Brien (17 October 2013).. The Independent. London. from the original on 18 October 2013.
- Jonathan Jones (17 October 2013).. The Guardian. from the original on 2 February 2017.
- ^ Chris Boyette (1 November 2013).. CNN. from the original on 3 January 2014.
- Katya Kazakina (1 November 2013).. Blomberg. from the original on 24 October 2014.
- Oh, Inae (28 October 2013).. Huffington Post. from the original on 4 January 2014.
- Leonard Greene (27 October 2013).. New York Post. from the original on 18 January 2014.
- . The Telegraph. London. 31 October 2013. from the original on 26 February 2014.
- Alice Vincent (23 October 2013).. The Daily Telegraph. London. from the original on 26 February 2014.
- . The Daily Mail. London. 15 October 2013. from the original on 18 October 2013. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
- .. 26 February 2015. from the original on 28 February 2015.
- . Dismaland. from the original on 5 September 2015.
- Brown, Mark (21 August 2015).. The Guardian. from the original on 21 August 2015. Retrieved 21 August 2015.
- . Dismaland. Archived from on 21 August 2015.
- .. 11 December 2015. from the original on 12 December 2015. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
- . walledoffhotel.com. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
- . Descrier. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
- . Hyperallergic. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
- Paul Vallely (23 September 2006).. The Independent. Archived from on 2008-07-07. Retrieved 30 July 2016.
- - Episode 13
- 3 March 2015 at the.. BBC. Retrieved 20 May 2015
- 26 August 2016 at the.. The Guardian. Retrieved 20 May 2015
- Sherwin, Adam (3 March 2016).. Independent. from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- Hauge, Michelle V.; Stevenson, Mark D.; Rossmo, D. Kim; Le Comber, Steven (3 March 2016).. Journal of Spatial Science. :.
- Healey, Christopher.. from the original on 5 August 2016. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
- Alexander, Ella (20 October 2014).. The Independent. London. Retrieved 9 November 2014.
- ^ Hinton, Patrick (2 September 2016).. Mixmag. from the original on 3 September 2016. Retrieved 4 September 2016.
- Jenkins, Nash.. TIME.com. from the original on 4 September 2016. Retrieved 4 September 2016.
- Jaworski, Michael (2 September 2016).. The Daily Dot. from the original on 3 September 2016. Retrieved 4 September 2016.
- .. 22 June 2017. from the original on 23 June 2017. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
- (PDF). British Council. 3 December 2016. (PDF) from the original on 3 April 2017.
- . BBC. 15 November 2016. from the original on 13 September 2014.
- Langley, William (18 March 2007).. London: The Telegraph. from the original on 10 November 2014. Retrieved 9 November 2014.
- Kennedy, Randy (24 March 2005).. The New York Times. from the original on 11 December 2008. Retrieved 12 June 2008.
- . 23 March 2005. Archived from on 9 September 2006. Retrieved 19 September 2006.
- Howe, Jeff (August 2005).. (13.08). from the original on 2 September 2006. Retrieved 3 January 2014.
- . BBC News. 5 August 2005. from the original on 25 April 2006. Retrieved 19 September 2006.
- Parry, Nigel (10 October 2006).. Nigel Parry, from MIT Thresholds journal. Archived from on 11 February 2009. Retrieved 12 February 2009.
- Parry, Nigel (2 September 2005)... from the original on 16 February 2009. Retrieved 12 February 2009.
- loveforlogos (29 July 2012).. YouTube. from the original on 3 July 2013. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
- . BBC News. 7 April 2006. from the original on 7 December 2006. Retrieved 19 September 2006.
- ^ Banksy's Bristol: Home Sweet Home by Steve Wright (2007), p. 93
- . BBC News. 21 June 2006. from the original on 12 March 2007. Retrieved 19 September 2006.
- . BBC News. 23 June 2009. from the original on 26 June 2009. Retrieved 23 June 2009.
- . BBC News. 4 September 2006. from the original on 10 September 2006. Retrieved 19 September 2006.
- Truscott, Claire; Hodgson, Martin (3 September 2006).. London:. from the original on 5 September 2006. Retrieved 19 September 2006.
- . 7 September 2006. Archived from on 21 November 2006. Retrieved 19 September 2006.
- . 8 September 2006. Archived from on 15 October 2006. Retrieved 19 September 2006.
- . BBC News. 11 September 2006. from the original on 5 October 2006. Retrieved 19 September 2006.
- . BBC News. 14 January 2008. from the original on 17 January 2008. Retrieved 14 January 2008.
- Eurosport (25 July 2012).. Uk.eurosport.yahoo.com. from the original on 9 November 2012. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
- 24 July 2012 Updated: 26 July 2012 23:37.. Huffingtonpost.co.uk. from the original on 27 July 2012. Retrieved 25 November 2012.
- Morris, Steven (10 June 2014).. Guardian. from the original on 5 October 2015. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
- . ABC News. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. AFP. 22 August 2016. from the original on 23 August 2016. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
- 6 June 2016 Updated: 6 June 2016 12:57.. Telegraph Media Group Limited. from the original on 8 June 2016. Retrieved 6 June 2016.
- 6 June 2016 Updated: 6 June 2016 12:00.. British Broadcast Corporation. from the original on 6 June 2016. Retrieved 6 June 2016.
- . The Daily Telegraph. London: Telegraph Media Group. 7 May 2017. Retrieved 8 January 2018.
- . The Melbourne Leader. 27 April 2010. Archived from on 29 April 2010. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
- Janeczko, Jane (15 October 2013)... from the original on 24 February 2015. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
- Janeczko, Jane (8 October 2013)... from the original on 13 October 2013. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
- Turco, Bucky.. Animal New York. from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
- Dobkin, Jake... Archived from on 10 October 2013. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
- . Graffiti Wars. Channel 4. from the original on 7 September 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
- Wall and Piece, by Banksy, 2006, Century, , pg 204
- Jonathon Keats (3 August 2012).. Forbes.com. from the original on 7 February 2013. Retrieved 1 January 2013.
- Wall and Piece, by Banksy, 2006, Century, , pg 110
- Wall and Piece, by Banksy, 2006, Century, , pg 155
- .. from the original on 4 June 2017.
- . from the original on 5 June 2017. Retrieved 2017-06-05.
- O'Connor, Roisin.. Independent.co.uk. from the original on 22 June 2017. Retrieved 6 June 2017.
- . Brian Sewell Art Directory (briansewell.com). 4 August 2005. Archived from on 15 February 2009. Retrieved 26 January 2009.
- . Charlie Brooker (guardian.co.uk). London. 22 September 2006. from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 31 January 2011.
- ^. The Independent. London. 19 April 2008. from the original on 8 August 2011.
- Wells, Jeff (15 August 2011). "Guerrilla artists at war over style accusations".. p. 3.
- . from the original on 2 November 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-04.
- . Time. 16 October 2013. from the original on 26 September 2015.
- Tom Tivnan, 10 November 2013 at the., The Book Seller, 8 June 2009. Retrieved 2 December 2011.
- Ulrich Blanché, Something to s(pr)ay: Der Street Artivist Banksy. Eine kunstwissenschaftliche Untersuchung (2010),
- Martin Bull, (2006 – with new editions in 2007, 2008 and 2010), .
- Will Elsworth-Jones, Banksy, the Man behind the Wall (2012), .
- Paul Gough (ed), Banksy, the Bristol Legacy (2012), .
- Steve Wright, Banksy's Bristol: Home Sweet Home, Tangent Books (2007),
- ; Peters, Gerrit; Zahlmann, Heiko, eds. (2002).. Urban Discipline: Graffiti-Art (in German). 3 (1st ed.). Hamburg (Germany): getting-up. p. 144. .
Slideshows and galleries:
Pretty black dresses tumblr 2018
Hannah murray skins pure 2018
Options for long hair 2018
Cute summer outfits for high school tumblr